Gynecomastia is a disease in which a man’s breast increases in size. This condition causes not only discomfort, but also a serious health problem, since it is associated with a violation of hormonal levels. This pathology, unfortunately, is observed quite often, and many men do not know how to get rid of it. To help in this matter can only doctor.
Causes of Gynecomastia
The etiology of the disease is associated with a deficiency in the male body of the hormone testosterone and an excess of estrogen. In some cases, this hormonal failure is caused by the ingestion of natural estrogens contained in foods, such as beer.
In addition, the following pathologies can lead to the development of the disease:
- taking steroids;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- diseases of the kidneys and adrenal glands;
- endocrine disorders;
- cancer of the testicles, stomach, lung, pancreas;
- pituitary tumors;
- cardiovascular diseases;
The most common type of gynecomastia is - false, which occurs in obese men.
There is also physiological gynecomastia, which is observed:
- In infants, when the hormones of the mother are transmitted through the placenta, the symptoms of the disease persist until one month of age and disappear without any consequences;
- In adolescent boys, in cases where there is a temporary hormonal imbalance, passes within two years;
- In old age, when a man has a decrease in the hormone testosterone and a significant increase in weight.
Often, gynecomastia develops against the background of hereditary predisposition. In some cases, the cause of gynecomastia is quite difficult to establish: this type of disease is called idiopathic.
Symptoms of the disease
The disease can manifest very unpleasant symptoms:
- libido abnormality;
- fatigue and weakness.
In babies there is swelling in the chest, in rare cases, there is a release of colostrum.
In adult males, there is an increase in the mammary glands up to 10 cm in diameter and up to 150 g in weight. You can also detect swelling of the nipple and darkening of the halo around it - this phenomenon is characteristic of women during lactation. Often manifested nipple soreness, discomfort and tension, but more often an increase in the mammary glands in men is not associated with any sensations.
The disease has the following stages:
- Proliferating (developing): in this case, drug treatment will be sufficient.
- Intermediate, during which maturation of glandular tissue occurs. This stage can last up to a year.
- Fibrous - during this period connective and adipose tissue develops and expands. It is almost impossible to stop this pathology with the help of drug therapy.
Diagnosis of gynecomastia
For a complete examination and identification of the cause of the disease should contact the surgeon, mammologist, endocrinologist and andrologist.
The specialist will appoint:
- laboratory blood tests for hormones;
- Breast ultrasound;
- tomography of the adrenal or thyroid gland.
Physiological and age gynecomastia is not treated. Hormonal disorders associated with this type of disease disappear themselves after stabilization occurs. If boys have high concentrations of estrogen, hormone therapy is carried out:
Conservative drug therapy of gynecomastia is very effective in the initial stages of the disease and in adults. Such treatment is appropriate to carry out in the first 4 months from the beginning of the onset of the initial symptoms.
If estrogen is found in excess, anti-estrogen therapy is conducted with Tamoxifen, which blocks female hormones and prevents the mammary glands from developing.
Treatment of gynecomastia, which arose against the background of hormonal drugs (steroids), is not required, the disease passes immediately after the termination of their reception.
False gynecomastia is treated by weight correction, in rare cases liposuction is required.
When conservative methods are ineffective, surgical treatment of gynecomastia is carried out in order to remove glandular tissues in the breast and restore its normal contour.
When the disease goes into the third stage of drug therapy will not be able to cure it, the help of surgeons will be needed. There are several surgical procedures to remove breast tissue. The method is chosen by the attending physician together with the patient.
Surgical intervention is carried out for the treatment of truth and false gynecomastia. The following types of operations are carried out:
- Regular mastoectomy: complete removal of the mammary gland together with the areola. Currently, such operations are carried out only for cancer.
- Subcutaneous mastoectomy is performed using a para-paraolar incision, while the nipple and the isola region is not damaged.
- Mastoectomy with liposuction. Removal of the mammary gland is carried out using a paraareolar incision, then the adipose tissue is removed in order to restore the normal shape of the breast.
- Endoscopy. Such a mastoectomy can be performed in cases where the breast enlargement is insignificant.
Effects of the operation
After any surgical treatment, a recovery period is required, sometimes the doctor prescribes painkillers.
Bruises and swelling may remain in the chest area for a while. To alleviate this condition, it will be necessary to wear special compressive underwear for a month.
For some time, will have to abandon sex and physical activity.
How to get rid of gynecomastia without surgery
In order to recover from this disease, without resorting to surgical intervention, you need to get rid of bad habits and eat right.
If breast augmentation is due to overweight, special exercise will help.
To regulate the normal level of testosterone in the male body, it is necessary to include foods rich in zinc in the daily diet. These products include:
- seeds of watermelon;
- beef liver.
At the same time, products that contain natural estrogens should be excluded:
- flax seed;
- milk products;
Gynecomastia disease is very serious and requires careful diagnosis, first of all it is necessary to exclude the presence of oncology. The main thing is not to despair and clearly understand that this disease is treated. However, it must be remembered that, before treating gynecomastia, one should heal from the diseases whose symptom is an enlargement of the mammary glands.