Winter shade - known to most of the mushroom pickers belonging to the genus flammulin. It is often called the velvet or enokitake.
Description of the species
The fruit body of the representatives of this species is a capstone. The enokitake cap has a maximum diameter of 100 mm; in adult mushrooms, the cap is flat, and in young it has a slight bulge. The color of this part of the fungus varies from yellowish-orange to rich honey-brown color. The edges are somewhat lighter than the central part.
The leg of the honeycomb is located exactly in the center of the cap, while its diameter reaches 10 mm and its length is 70 mm. The shape of the leg is regular - cylindrical, the body is tubular with a fairly dense structure. The color of the legs looks like brown velvet.
The flesh of the cap is rather thin, with a pleasant taste and aroma, the color is from pure white to light yellow. Often lamellar fabric grows to the cap. The color of the plates is ocher or white. The leg basically has no residues of the veil, the spores are white, the shape is ellipsoidal or cylindrical.
Distribution of species
The main place of growth of winter mushroom is northern areas with a temperate climate. In fact, this type of mushroom leads a parasitic lifestyle, growing on wood, damaged or rather weak trees. Most often found mushrooms on such trees as willow or poplar, growing in city parks, gardens, forest plantations.
The peak of growth of this type of mushrooms and, accordingly, their collection falls on two seasons - spring and autumn. I would like to draw attention to the fact that the mushrooms of this species, as a rule, do not grow alone, but rather bear fruit in rather large groups.
Often you can see a few accrete experience. This species also continues to grow in the cold season, for which, in fact, got its name.
The velvety honeydew mushroom is an edible mushroom that can be eaten in almost any form (fresh, pickled, boiled, fried, pickled or fermented). According to its taste and nutritional value of this type of edible mushrooms belong to the 4th category.
The process of making winter mushrooms involves the mandatory primary processing of the product, the cut of the dark part of the leg - in young specimens, and the use of the cap flesh - in the old ones. Note that the pre-boiled mushrooms become rather slippery. This species tolerates freezing well, without losing its excellent taste. This fact suggests that, having gathered on a quiet hunt in the forest for mushrooms, you should not miss the mushrooms in thawed or frozen state.
This type of mushroom is very popular in Japan and is often used to prepare traditional Japanese dishes.
Important! There are certain toxins in the pulp of the fruit body, which are distinguished by their instability, for this reason the winter mushrooms must be boiled for 20-30 minutes before cooking the main dishes.
Pickled mushrooms are considered the most delicious. Mushrooms are boiled in salted water until cooked, after which they are placed in a prepared marinade solution, in which they should be boiled for about 15-20 minutes. After that, the finished composition is decomposed in sterilized banks.
Just like many other types of edible mushrooms, winter mushrooms have some healing properties, which gives greater value to these tasty and healthy gifts of nature. Scientists have found out that the pulp of the fruit body contains such a substance as flamulin, which helps prevent such a dangerous illness as sarcoma. Also, the pulp contains a rather large amount of amino acids for humans, significantly exceeding that found in many fruits and vegetables.
The more often this type of fungus will appear in the human diet, the lower the risk of cancer. It was also found that winter swell activates the immune system.
Widespread use has also been found in the field of cosmetology, on the basis of this type of mushroom special lotions, masks, and cream compositions are produced, which have a rejuvenating effect, and eliminate peeling and dry skin.
Cultivation of species
Cultivation (cultivation) on a large scale is carried out, as a rule, in many Asian countries. For these purposes, specially prepared and moistened wood or wheat straw is used. The harvest of mushrooms, artificially grown on special mushroom farms, is collected year-round, however, for this the constant condition in the premises of a certain temperature is a prerequisite. The volume of artificially grown mushrooms again reaches 100,000 tons of mushrooms annually.
Growing at home
In our country, this type of mushroom as winter shade is relatively little known, as mentioned above, this species is more common in Asian countries, where it is cultivated in industrial quantities. However, this mushroom is not too demanding and, if desired, any man in the street can grow it at home (on the balcony or loggia). For these purposes, you should purchase a ready-made substrate that fits into pre-prepared containers; the ideal solution would be ordinary glass jars. At the next stage, the mushroom mycelium is placed in the substrate.
We draw attention to the fact that if all technological standards are observed and after the first rudiments of fruit bodies are produced, it will be possible to harvest the first crop after two weeks. In agony, which are grown in artificial conditions, all parts are used for food - both the cap and the stem. As a rule, the average yield from one three-liter can is up to 1.5 kg of mushrooms.
What to consider when collecting winter mushrooms
It is important to take into account that such a fungus as winter mint is one of the few species that are resistant to fairly strong environmental pollution and the atmosphere. That is, mushrooms can grow even in the central areas of large metropolitan areas (urban parks) or on the sides of highways. But, it does not say that they should be collected in the places listed. Although they are resistant to polluted and polluted atmosphere, nevertheless, they tend to accumulate all the harmful substances, absorbing them into themselves, like a sponge. That is, eating such mushrooms is very dangerous for human health and life.
Such a poisonous mushroom as galerina fringed is the most similar in appearance with the winter grains. We draw attention to the fact that the peak of fruiting of these mushrooms does not coincide, respectively, the risk of confusing the species during harvest is extremely small. But everyone should know that the main difference between a poisonous species and opyka is a characteristic ring on the stem, inherent in many inedible and dangerous for humans mushrooms.