Royal Amanita - a mushroom of the Amanita family, characterized by high toxicity (causes intoxication and the appearance of hallucinations). The main place of distribution of this species is the central part of Russia and a number of European countries (north, center).
Description of the species
The cap of the representatives of this species is quite large - in diameter it reaches 250 mm. In young mushrooms, the shape is spherical, with the edges tightly pressed against the body. With growth, the shape changes - the edges become straightened (convex-prostrate). The surface of this part of the fungus is densely dotted with characteristic warty outgrowths of white and yellowish color. Directly, the color of the cap itself varies from yellow-brown to ocher-brown. The color of the cap in the central, more convex part is darker.
The lamellar body under the hat is light-colored, with the growth of the mushroom the plates become yellowish. The pulp of the fruit body is rather thick, fragile, light, practically does not have any pronounced smell.
The height of the royal mushroom mushroom foot has a rather large range of length - from 80 to 250 mm, its width reaches 30 mm. In young specimens, it is of a tuberiform shape; in adult fungi, it is more slender, with a characteristic extension at the base, hollow. The surface of the body of the leg is covered with a patina consisting of flakes of light color, the main color of this part of the Amanita is ocher-brown. Also on the leg there is a slightly sagging ring with a smooth surface of white color (dark yellow bordering).
Most often, this type of fly agaric is found in forests located in the central and northern part of Europe and the Russian Federation. In addition, this species is seen in Alaska and in Korea. Peak fruiting of this type of mushroom - from mid-summer to October.
Often, many ordinary people confuse the royal Amanita with such related species as the usual red and panther, this is due to the similarity of their appearance. However, upon closer examination of the royal Amanita, it can be noted that this type of representatives of the amanita family, unlike the traditional and often found red, does not have a hint of the characteristic bright red color of the cap. The main colors of this type of mushroom are brownish, yellow and white. In addition, the royal fly agaric differs from other species of the family by yellowish flakes, which densely cover the body of the leg.
Quite often royal amanitas are confused with a gray-pink amanita, this is explained by climatic conditions, because of which this species often has a paler color, that is, the cap of mushrooms has an inexpressive brownish-yellow color. These species can be recognized by the color of the pulp at the cut, in the gray-pink mushroom it is reddish.
Another mushroom that looks like a royal mushroom is a panther, the main difference of the latter is the characteristic white flesh of the cap and the non-adherent, cup-shaped volvo located at the base of the leg.
Toxicity of the species
The main components that make up the royal Amanita fruit body are ibotenic acid and muscimol, which, in fact, distinguishes this species from the panther and red amanita mushrooms, which contain muscarin.
As a rule, the first symptoms after eating mushrooms occur 2 hours after they have been consumed and are manifested by severe pain in the stomach, upset stool and frequent gagging. Also, the additional characteristic symptoms of poisoning are quite strong nervous excitement, as well as auditory and visual hallucinations.
The peculiarity of fungi is their ability to significantly accumulate heavy metal salts (for example, about 1000 mg of vanadium per 1000 grams of dry raw materials). This is a rather large indicator, the average content of this metal in other types of fungi, as a rule, does not exceed 2-3 mg per 1 kg of dry raw material.
I would like to note that the hallucinogenic effect of eating mushrooms can be different for everyone, this is directly related to how susceptible the human body is, with the number of mushrooms used, as well as the place of their growth. As mentioned above, the first signs of poisoning with a royal fly agaric manifest themselves already after 1.5-2 hours after consuming (minor convulsions, most often a person begins to tend to sleep).
As a rule, immersion in sleep is not complete, with visions. Sensitivity to sounds increases. The duration of the hallucinogenic effect does not exceed 5-6 hours. Side effects include nausea, observed in the first hours after eating mushrooms and abdominal pain.