It is almost impossible to keep track of the child, so children are most often prone to various injuries. Head injury is considered the most dangerous because it leads to a brain concussion. How to determine that a child has a similar trouble? What actions should be performed in this case?
Concussion refers to traumatic brain injury. It is dangerous to the health of any person and requires hospitalization. High mobility of the child often leads to various falls, blows and damage to the bones.
Liquid fluid is present between the brain and the skull. It is in it that the human brain “floats”. Liquor serves as an additional shock absorber for heading and protects the brain matter from damage. In young children, the brain also protects the physiological spring in the region of the crown. That is why most baby falls fall safely. However, in some cases, this or that head injury can be quite dangerous and carry a threat to human life.
You should know how to properly treat your baby in the event of a traumatic brain injury, how to properly provide him peace and quick recovery.
Types of head injuries and their stages
The brain structures of the infant are somewhat different from the organ of an adult. It is important to know that after an injury the child’s well-being can deteriorate dramatically, so it’s important not to leave the baby alone. Parents need to carefully monitor the child’s condition and manifestations of concussion. It happens that the signs of concussion are completely invisible, and only the pallor of his skin is indicative of the child’s poor state of health.
To understand all the dangers of traumatic brain injury, you should know its varieties. This will help parents to properly provide first aid before the arrival of doctors.
All traumatic brain injuries in medicine are classified into:
- brain contusion;
- more serious brain contusion with broken bones;
- contusion of the brain with hematoma.
With a very impressive blow, a skull injury and concussion or contusion of the brain occur. At the same time, concussion and bruise - things are different. In the first state, the brain does not strike the skull with force, there is no bone fracture and hemorrhage. Concussion of the brain is not a severe injury and passes without consequences for children's health.
A brain injury is a more serious injury. Often it is accompanied by fractures of the bones of the skull. Even more dangerous is a brain contusion with a subsequent hematoma inside the skull.
There are several degrees of concussion:
- I st. - dizziness, pain in the temporal and occipital parts, drowsiness, weakness;
- II st. - shallow short-term syncope;
- III Art. - long-term loss of consciousness, pale skin, severe weakness.
The main cause of injury is children's restlessness. Moreover, it does not matter if you entrust your child to a stranger or personally observe a child. At any moment the little man may not turn and fall. At the beginning of walking young children are injured less. But here another danger awaits - the abundance of slides on the playground, stairs and other objects. Falling from a ladder or slide, children often get a head injury.
It must be remembered that after the fall of the child, it is important to pay close attention to the condition of the child. There are certain symptoms in which a doctor can diagnose concussion:
- pale skin;
- violation of the movement of the visual pupils;
- loss of consciousness;
- pain in the head;
- slowing or increasing heart rate;
- expansion or vice versa significant reduction in the size of the pupils.
After concussion of the baby’s skin, the skin turns sharply pale, and then redness begins. However, this feature may not be in the event of injury. Parents should pay attention to the condition of the eyes of the victim. When the brain concussion is disrupted synchronization of the movements of the pupils, they are expanded or reduced. The breathing of a small person changes - immediately after receiving a trauma, breathing is uneven. There may be bleeding from the nostrils.
In some cases, the fall may be followed by a syncope. Loss of consciousness can last for several minutes. If there is no fainting, the child usually feels lethargy and weakness, he may have a headache. Symptoms of concussion may well be protracted and manifest in the disorder of sleep, drowsiness. Often there is tinnitus and dizziness.
You should know that the injury does not increase body temperature. It is kept in the normal range. If there is an increased t, then this indicates the penetration of the infection into the children's organism against the background of a head injury. In the first hours after shaking, the child may be agitated and anxious. Abundant regurgitation in babies, vomiting and nausea in more adult children are possible. Symptoms usually do not last more than three days, if the blow was not strong.
Doctors claim that at home it is impossible to identify whether a skull fracture occurred. It shows only an x-ray of the skull. If the child has fallen, complains of weakness, nausea and you observe vomiting, drowsiness and inactivity in him, you should consult a doctor for examination and research.
It is important to understand that the competent rendering of first aid is of great importance in case of a head injury. Doctors claim that it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance, inspect the head of the child for the presence of damage. If there is a wound, the problem area is treated with an antiseptic, non-alcohol based solution. Chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide are suitable for this purpose. Do not use alcohol solutions when treating a head wound, they can lead to the development of shock. For bleeding, a cotton-gauze tampon is applied, and a bandage is applied after it.
When I degree of illness the child is conscious, but it should certainly be taken to the hospital. For this purpose should not use public transport. In the car, you should put the child and support his head so that the shaking does not rock her. The baby should provide comfort and peace. After an examination in a medical institution, children may not be sent to a hospital, but they may prescribe outpatient treatment.
Grade II concussion is characterized by severe vomiting and drowsiness. The child should not be allowed to fall asleep before the ambulance arrives. Baby should be put, but do not let him sleep. After sleep, the severity of symptoms of a concussion may increase, and the baby’s consciousness becomes clouded.
When the III degree of the disease should lay the child on the right side and put the right wrist under the head. The left limb is required to slightly bend and lay along the body. The legs should also be bent at the knees. This situation will help protect the child from choking by vomitus and fix it in case of severe convulsions. Required to call an ambulance.
When concussion is necessary to conduct a series of studies. Performed by:
- Skull X-ray - helps to determine the integrity of the bones.
- Neurosonography - is an accurate ultrasound. The procedure helps to identify the pathology of the brain and give a clear picture of the disease, determine the presence of hematoma, contusion, hemorrhage. Diagnosis reveals edema, intracranial abnormalities.
- Echo-encephalography - determines the displacement of the midline of the brain, which indicates a brain contusion and the occurrence of a hematoma. It has low reliability, so doctors recommend making an MRI for your child.
- MRI - young children are examined under anesthesia. It helps to get a complete picture of the injury, the presence of hemorrhage and the condition of the cranial bones.
- Electroencephalography - directly examines the activity of the brain, helps to assess the severity and strength of the injury.
- Computed tomography - determines the state of all structures of the brain, as well as the base and directly of the cranial vault. Detects hematoma, any hemorrhage, the slightest brain damage.
The choice of diagnostic method depends directly on the signs of concussion, the severity of symptoms and the capabilities of the clinic. Not every hospital has a CT scanner. In this case, the study can be performed using other devices.
The placement of the baby in the hospital depends on the severity of the symptoms and the decision of the doctors. Drug therapy includes the use of anticonvulsants, diuretic drugs and drugs that stabilize the cerebral circulation. In some cases, pain medications are prescribed.
When I - II Art. disease sick child can be treated at home. The main thing is to protect the little patient from noise and movement, to ensure complete rest and bed rest. The child should be in bed for at least 3 days. It is necessary to prohibit him from watching TV and computer, reading books. Such actions have a stimulating effect on the brain.
Do not leave the affected child unattended! His condition may worsen. Concussion can be quite insidious and show more pronounced symptoms after a while. This indicates the development of complications. You can not self-medicate - if the doctor has prescribed certain pills, they must be taken. Even small injuries of the head and child after any fall and head bruise cannot be ignored.
An injured child cannot be placed in a position where his head is too low. When vomiting baby can not be put on his back. If the doctor insists on putting the baby in the hospital, you should not refuse. There the child will be under constant medical supervision. Hospitalization has several goals:
- prevents injury complications;
- prevents swelling of the brain;
- prevents the development of epileptic seizures;
- allows you to provide urgent medical care in case of deterioration of the injured child.
A standard hospital stay takes about 1 week. During this period, all the necessary diagnostic measures are performed, which help physicians determine the nature of the injury with high accuracy and prevent complications. In a hospital setting, the child also complies with bed rest. The child must be at rest.
Creating emotional comfort is the main task in concussion in a child. Baby should be protected from any noise and mobility. Doctors recommend even after discharge to adhere to bed rest and to protect the child from watching TV.
In severe head injury, which is accompanied by loss of consciousness, bed rest should be observed for two weeks. It is necessary to take medications prescribed by the doctor. In some cases, the doctor prescribes nootropic drugs that improve the work of neurons and cerebral circulation.
To prevent cerebral edema, are assigned:
- diuretic drugs to prevent swelling of the brain;
- agents that stimulate the blood circulation of the brain;
- antihistamine medications;
Diocarb is a diuretic often prescribed - it should be taken within the first 3 days after shaking. The drug is prescribed in combination with potassium preparations. They also take sedatives and antihistamine medicines. For headaches, analgesics are used — such as Sedalgin and Baralgin may be prescribed by a doctor. If the condition is accompanied by nausea, dispense a tserukala.
It is very important to provide a weakened child with proper nutrition. In the first days there should be a sparing diet that does not overload the stomach. It is useful to give the kid a vegetable and fruit puree, porridge. Food should be easily digestible and nutritious. Diet is important to follow for 1-2 weeks. Then in the diet of the baby must begin to introduce meat dishes and soups.
Treating concussion usually does not take more than 1-2 weeks. In extreme cases, taking nootropic drugs can last about 1 month. However, do not forget about the possible consequences of traumatic brain injury.
Around the world, a very large number of children get a head injury. With proper treatment, it passes without consequences. However, head injury can occur even after a few years.
Severe head injuries can develop epilepsy in a child.
Babies can also be tormented by headaches due to weather changes.
You should be very careful about the complaints of the child, pay close attention to them and consult a doctor.
You should not save on performing the necessary diagnostics. It will help identify various irregularities in the brain and get an answer to the questions why the child is suffering from headaches or other manifestations of the former injury.
Upon detection of pathology, it is important to start treatment in a timely manner to avoid deterioration of the baby’s health. Properly prescribed therapy will correct violations in the child's body.