Those who have decided to breed goats in their own farmstead or small farm have doubts when choosing a breed. There are several breeds from which you can get tasty meat and milk. Nubian breed at the moment is not very common in Russia. However, the breed has a huge number of advantages, so it makes sense to engage in its breeding.
The origin of the Nubian breed is quite unusual. The gene pool was taken by English breeders from the African Republic of Namibia. This is what explains the name of the breed - "Nubian".
The blood of pure breed animals combined the genes of local goats, cattle from Switzerland and India. A personal contribution to breeding the breed was made by breeders from America. They were able to increase the productivity of goats in the meat and dairy direction. However, the first are still considered the British. Therefore, the full name of the breed sounds like "Anglo-Nubian."
In Russia, the breed began to be imported from America. It happened in the 2000s. To date, there are only a few dozen goats of this breed. For large-scale dilution of such an amount, of course, not enough. The cost of breeding young individuals is more than 120 thousand rubles, so the breed is in low demand.
Representatives of this breed have a rather unusual appearance. The main feature of the exterior are large hanging ears, which are located below the muzzle of a goat. By this they look like basset hounds (a breed of dog).
Habits also resemble dogs - they believe that their owner is the leader of the pack, follow him, respond to the names. When they see a stranger, they run to him, making loud noises.
Representatives of the breed have a pronounced "Greek profile." But the color can be very diverse:
- stained "under the leopard."
The goats have a short, silky and smooth coat. Males are always with big horns. Females are usually horny, but this is not the dominant trait of these animals. Foreign breed can be described as large - body weight of sexually mature females can reach 80 kg. Males can reach 100 kg in weight. Height at withers is 90 cm. Paws are thin, proportionate to the body, the neck of the animal is long.
It is impossible to say exactly what kind of character the breed has: some breeders note the willfulness and restlessness of animals, while others, on the contrary, say that they are gentle, kind and quiet. Probably, quality data is influenced by the conditions in which the goats are kept, how they are fed and how the owners relate to them.
This breed is considered meat and dairy. When the first lambing occurs, the animal begins to give more than 3 liters of milk. Lactation time is about 300 days a year. It is easy to calculate that the goat owner will receive about a ton of high-quality milk in 12 months. As a rule, its fat content varies in the range of 4.5-5 percent, but there were such situations that the fat content of milk reached even 8 percent. Such products are well suited for making cheeses.
Milk is enriched with protein - its content in the product is not less than 3.7 percent. Its taste is described as nut and creamy, a peculiar smell has no milk. Although, the taste of milk may be different for each animal, even the same breed.
Owners notice that the goats, even during the "mating" games, do not show any disagreeable odor that can affect the quality of milk. This means that there is no reason for keeping individuals of opposite sexes in different rooms. It should be noted that the increase in milk yield is noted with each subsequent lambing.
As already mentioned, the breed is designed to receive not only milk but also meat, the weight of animals increases rapidly. In Russia, goats are usually not bred "for meat." However, in a situation with this exotic breed, you can get not only high-quality milk of high fat content, but also meat with excellent taste. It has a pleasant taste, a sharp smell is absent.
Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
The appearance of the Nubian goats has no competitors. However, they have a lot of other advantages, when compared with other breeds:
- The productivity of females after three lactations can reach five liters per day.
- Lactation period is at least 300 days in 12 months.
- The milk of these goats has a high percentage of fat, so it can be used to make delicious cheeses.
- Juveniles rapidly gain weight, the meat of this breed is a delicious product.
- In one lamb, two or three goats can appear on the light, while they are big and strong.
- Goats can produce offspring twice a year.
If we talk about the minuses of the breed, we can note the following:
- Individuals with a color coat are attacked by blood-sucking parasites more often than having a white coat.
- Representatives of this breed must be carefully looked after and a special feeding regimen must be followed, giving food in a strictly allotted time.
- Such goats cannot be kept in commercial farms. Not able to tolerate the presence of a number of other types of livestock.
How to maintain and care for goats of the Nubian breed
Although such goats have acclimatized, they do not tolerate the harsh climatic conditions of many Russian regions very well. In order to contain them, a barn in which the wind is walking will not work. Drugs and high humidity have a negative effect on animals - they can get pneumonia. Kids in such conditions can die only when born.
There are some requirements for the room in which these animals will be kept: it must be light, clean, warm and have good ventilation.
Attention! Transatlantic goats will not tolerate representatives of other breeds about themselves. Besides the fact that they will behave aggressively, their productivity will decrease.
Nubians are perfect for individual plank beds made of wood, to cover which straw is used - they like to sort it out and try the most delicious stalks. Straw should be replaced regularly: the animal will not go to the contaminated surface, it will behave restlessly, which will affect the amount of milk.
The owner of the Nubian goat should pay special attention to its diet, as well as to the feeding regime. During the wintering period, food should be given three times a day.
The diet should consist of hay (about 5 kg), concentrates from grain (about 2 kg), vegetables, silage, branches (about 1 kg). The calculation of the volume of concentrate per individual is quite simple. The amount of feed must necessarily consist of 300 g, to which it is necessary to add 250 g for each liter of milk that the animal has given. Goats are very fond of brooms that are made from pine, as well as bark of linden, hazel, willow, mountain ash or maple.
It is possible to noticeably increase the number of milk yields by including oats and barley in the ration of a goat, preliminarily grinding or steaming them.
Nubians are given vitamins on a mandatory basis. They are present in specialized feed intended for meat and dairy breeds. In the winter months it is desirable to add salt to the water for drinking. In the summer - put lizuntsy near tanks with drinking water. Chalk should be a component of the diet all the time.
It is necessary to feed and milk a goat according to a strictly fixed schedule (the owner of the animal himself develops it individually). This is necessary to avoid stress, and therefore reduce the productivity of the goat.
If the herd is kept in pasture conditions, in the evening oats, barley, fruits and vegetables should be added to livestock feed. It is necessary to remember about males: in the mating season they must eat heavily, legumes, grains, vitamin complexes, minerals are desirable.
How Nubian goats are bred
Anyone who decides to breed Nubian goats, can secure a good profit: the cost per pure goat breed is at least 120 thousand rubles. Nubian women demonstrate good productivity when they produce offspring.
The main feature of this breed is considered the possibility of crossing as a representative of the same breed, and other species. Thanks to this, you can achieve excellent results:
- increase milk fat;
- increase productivity;
- accelerated weight gain.
An animal is considered sexually mature after seven months, but it is desirable to mate goats no sooner than it will be 12-18 months. The female bears offspring for 150 days. 2-3 goats are born at a time. Children are born strong and viable, so you can immediately take them away from their mother.
You should know that the kids who have just been born do not have immunity against diseases. Therefore, it is necessary immediately after birth to give them maternal colostrum. A few drops of useful fluid "turn on" the kid's immune system.
When choosing representatives of the Nubian breed for breeding, you can be sure that the productivity of animals will be high, the milk will have a large percentage of fat, and the meat - excellent taste. But the owner will have to make some efforts to provide the cattle with proper care and good nutrition.