It looks like dandruff is familiar to everyone: there is hardly a person who has not met on his or someone else's clothes a scattering of light grains of different sizes. This trouble, although not a threat to life, can complicate it considerably. Dandruff is not only a little aesthetic - it is often accompanied by pruritus, a violation of the secretory function of the sebaceous glands and inflammatory reactions.
What is dandruff
Dandruff is a small flake exfoliated from the scalp in excessive quantities. Normally, cells, originating in the depth of the skin, slowly moving to its surface. In the process of this way they become thinner and dry. After the final keratinization, the cells easily leave the surface of the body and hair during washing. This is the process of renewal of the scalp, which takes about 30 days.
However, in some pathological conditions (skin diseases, changes in the activity of the sebaceous glands) the cycle time is reduced. Not having time to completely harden, the cells reach the surface of the skin, stick together between themselves and leave the head, forming a large number of visible flakes and grains visible to the eye.
What kind of pathological processes provoke the appearance of dandruff? Most often it is seborrhea - a disease affecting the skin of the whole body. One of its signs is dandruff, which in severe cases is formed not only on the head, but also on the skin under the eyebrows, hairy part of the chest or back. Moreover, most experts are of the opinion that dandruff as such is a mild form of seborrheic dermatitis, and therefore these concepts are often used as synonyms.
Less commonly, dandruff appears due to unbalanced nutrition, stress, gastrointestinal diseases, and other skin diseases.
The main causes of dandruff
A large number of microorganisms live on the surface of the human body, which do not harm the healthy body. The permanent inhabitants of the scalp are the fungi of the species Malassezia and Pityrosporum, which have recently been recognized as species of the same species.
However, only the normal course of physiological processes is disturbed, as the activity of these microorganisms becomes more active several times, and the fungi themselves begin to multiply rapidly.
The scalp, covered with hair and supplied with sebaceous glands, is in itself favorable for the vital activity of Malassezia / Pityrosporum mushrooms, which need warmth and an increased level of humidity. Changes in its condition (for example, increased secretion of fat) creates a nutrient medium for fungi, in which their number begins to multiply.
The activity of fungi leads to an increase in the amount of fatty acids on the surface of the head, which causes itching and irritation. As a result, the skin reacts by the appearance of inflammatory reactions, desquamation and dandruff.
Combing itchy places, a person breaks the integrity of the skin, which is why local immunity is getting lower: crusts, suppurations, inflammations, etc. form on the damaged areas. So the disease becomes chronic.
What reasons can change the normal course of the physiological processes of the body and thereby contribute to the activation of fungi? Most often, these include the following factors:
Genetic due features: the number of sebaceous glands, the composition of the secretion they produce, the sensitivity of the glands to hormonal changes, etc.
Features of female physiology: changes in hormonal balance during periods of ovulation or pregnancy can exacerbate the sensitivity of the scalp, which can lead to inflammatory formations.
- Diseases of the digestive system.
- Disruption of the endocrine glands.
- Immune diseases.
- Lack of proper hygiene.
- Emotional stress, depression, mental and nervous system diseases.
- Beriberi, unbalanced nutrition.
- Skin diseases.
- Excessive UV exposure.
Types of dandruff and their features
Types of dandruff are determined depending on the functional state of the sebaceous glands and the composition of their secretions. After analyzing the symptoms of the disease and the peculiarities of its course, we can distinguish the following types of seborrhea:
Dry. Its occurrence is associated with violations in the activity of the sebaceous glands: the secret they produce is highly viscous and therefore does not stand out well. Because of this, the surface layer of the skin becomes drier, the hair becomes thinner and more easily broken, and their tips are usually split. The scalp becomes capricious, because its sensitivity is markedly increased. Dry seborrhea is often accompanied by itching and hair loss. Sometimes there may be spots of red or pink. Dandruff of this type is easily showered from the scalp, almost without getting stuck in the hair.
Fatty. The main feature of this type of dandruff lies in its name. The surface of hair and skin becomes oily and shiny, which is associated with excessive production of sebum. Depending on its consistency, two forms of seborrhea can be distinguished:
- thick: the consistency of the secretion of the sebaceous glands resembles a neat dough. This form of the disease is characterized by dense and inelastic skin, tight, coarse hair. The sebaceous glands are enlarged and clogged with "plugs" of dead skin cells. Inside they are filled with thick contents. In some cases, the disease is accompanied by the appearance of staphylococcal or streptococcal ulcers;
- liquid: the consistency of secretion in density resembles vegetable oil. Dandruff in the form of large flakes covers the hair, which are covered with fat and stick together in separate strands a day after washing. Itchy skin ulcers may form on the skin, caused by blockage of hair follicles. After scratching or opening them, crusts form on the skin.
Mixed. This type of seborrhea combines the symptoms of both forms of the disease discussed above. For example, on the skin covered with hair, there may be foci of thick oily seborrhea, and on the face - liquid or dry.
How to get rid of dandruff at home
Good help in the fight against dandruff are recipes of traditional medicine, which usually uses the most familiar and affordable ingredients. However, before using them, you need to carefully study the composition of the product: whether it contains allergens. Using masks or shampoos alone will not bring the desired effect without deep cleaning - peeling of the scalp. Making it at home is also easy. Treatment of the scalp with peeling promotes better removal of skin flakes, improves blood circulation, and facilitates the nourishment of hair.
Recipes for scalp peeling
It is recommended to do deep cleansing of the scalp once in 14 days for owners of dry hair, and twice for the same period for those with sebum produced in excess. Most often used for peeling soda and salt. Depending on the type of hair, the peeling mixture can be supplemented with lemon juice, ground coffee, and essential oils. The finished composition is applied to the scalp with massaging movements and left for 5-10 minutes to affect. Then it is washed under running water.
The simplest peeling recipes are as follows:
- Mix a tablespoon of your shampoo with a teaspoon of baking soda and wash the mixture with your head. This method is suitable for owners of any type of hair. Often, instead of soda, ground coffee is added to the shampoo. This peeling option is not bad, but it is much more difficult to wash it off.
- Saline can also be used for any type of dandruff. The mixture consists of table salt and water in equal shares. Ingredients need to be mixed and then apply the resulting solution on the scalp, massage a little and rinse off after 5 minutes.
- Owners of greasy hair will appreciate peeling, for which egg yolk is mixed with a tablespoon of salt and juice of half a lemon.
Variants of home masks
Dandruff treatment with folk methods is not only effective, but also economical. From inexpensive and familiar products make excellent healing masks.
The following recipes have earned great popularity and good reviews:
- Massage scalp before washing with apple cider vinegar for 1-3 minutes.
- Apply the kefir on the unwashed head, and after 10-15 minutes wash it off using a suitable shampoo for the type of hair. This mask can be applied daily. As soon as dandruff becomes less, it is enough to apply kefir once every 10 days.
- Rubbing kombucha infusion into clean scalp for about 2-3 minutes followed by rinsing the hair.
- A mixture of castor oil, black tea and vodka in equal parts also helps to defeat dandruff. The resulting mass, slightly rubbing, is applied to the scalp and left to act for one and a half to two hours. Then you need to wash your hair with shampoo. This mask can be applied every other day.
- Burdock root, 20 gr. which you need to fill a glass of water and boil until the amount of liquid is halved. The broth should cool to a comfortable temperature for you, then it remains to strain and use, rubbing into clean scalp daily for 10 days.
- Remarkably soothe the itchy scalp and stop hair loss will help mask from the juice of one small bulb, yolk and a tablespoon of honey. It should be applied to the scalp before washing for 30-50 minutes. For a noticeable effect, the mask should be repeated every 2-3 days. A total of 10 procedures should be done. Its only drawback is that the smell of onions will appear on wet hair for about six months after the end of treatment. Dry hair will not contain any foreign odors.
- Rinsing the scalp with a decoction of oak bark helps to cope with oily seborrhea. Three tablespoons of bark is poured with a liter of water. After boiling for 15 minutes, the decoction is infused for half an hour and then filtered. You can rinse their heads after each wash for 1-2 months.
- A recipe mask with aloe juice (5 parts) and alcohol (1 part) is very popular. Mixing the ingredients in this proportion, you need to rub the mixture in the scalp every other day. The solution can be prepared with a margin, because it is beautifully stored in a dark cool place.
- For any type of dandruff, nettle has a good healing effect. With dry seborrhea, 3 tablespoons of herbs are poured with half a cup of vegetable oil. The mixture should stand for a week in a dark and cool place, after which it can be used by rubbing into the scalp before each wash. When oily seborrhea nettle (50 g) is filled with boiling water (300 ml). The composition should be brought to a boil, strain, cool and use to rinse hair after washing.
- Not only to rid the head of dandruff, but also a mask from a cup of natural yoghurt (you can buy or prepare it yourself) and 1-2 tablespoons of lemon juice will help to heal your hair. If the hair is very oily, the amount of juice can be doubled. Ingredients need to be mixed until smooth and apply the resulting mixture on clean scalp. After putting on a warming cap and wait 40-50 minutes. Then the composition can be washed off the hair with regular shampoo.
Using folk remedies for treatment it is important to remember that masks with alcohol can dry up the skin excessively, and therefore should not be abused. In addition, the mixture applied to the skin and hair should be immediately washed off if you suddenly feel a burning sensation or other unpleasant symptoms.
Anti-dandruff medicated shampoos
For those who do not want or can not use the recipes of traditional medicine, will help achieve pharmaceuticals. Today, in any pharmacy you can find a large number of medical shampoos designed specifically for the treatment of dandruff. These drugs are effective, but their price rarely drops below 300-400 rubles for a small bottle.
Dandruff shampoos can be divided into two types:
Exfoliating - help to thoroughly cleanse the skin, and also soothe the itching and reduce inflammatory reactions. These shampoos dry the skin, so when dry seborrhea should be used with caution. The following brands are very popular:
- Friderm Tar;
- Selegel containing selenium sulfide;
- Tar shampoo from the brand "Hundred recipes of beauty";
- Kerium from the brand La Roche-Posay.
Actually medicated (antifungal) shampoos. They contain substances that prevent the growth of fungi: clotrimazole, pyrithione, etc. These include:
- Nizoral, which is based on ketoconazole. Effective against a large number of fungi;
- Sulsen (shampoo and paste), the active ingredient of which is selenium disulfide. It not only allows deep cleansing of the skin, but also prevents the growth of fungi;
- Sebozol containing the same active substance as the above-mentioned Nizoral;
- Dermazole, which is based on ketotokotonazol. It helps not only to cope with dandruff, but also with other skin diseases (eczema, versicolor);
- Seborin acting on the fungus with the help of Climbazol.
Use the selected shampoo should be in accordance with the instructions. Do not wash their head more often than recommended in it. This will not speed up the process of scalp healing, but rather add new problems.
From the appearance of dandruff no one is insured, because it is impossible to predict what stressful situations you will have to go through or which diseases you may encounter in the future. However, anyone can afford to take simple preventive measures that will reduce the likelihood of meeting with this trouble.
Most actions aimed at preventing dandruff, meet the principles of a healthy lifestyle. This means that with the help of preventive measures can not only defeat dandruff, but also to join the proper nutrition.
Special attention should be paid to the following factors:
- A balanced diet that includes proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It should reduce the consumption of fatty, salty, too spicy foods. The refusal from carbonated drinks and an excess of simple carbohydrates (sugar, white flour products, etc.) will also benefit the body;
- Drinking mode: to maintain all metabolic processes in the body should drink enough clean water (about 2 liters daily). Tea, juice, compotes and other drinks are not taken into account;
- Hygiene: it is forbidden to use someone else's towels, combs, hair accessories, etc .;
- Personal care: you need to find suitable and non-aggressive body and hair care products. It should be less likely to use styling products (gel, foam, varnish, etc.) and not be lazy to wash them off before going to bed. No need to abuse shampoos with a preventive effect, the optimal frequency of their use - 1-2 times in two weeks;
- Emotional background: it is necessary to avoid nervous situations whenever possible. It should not only work, but also to fully relax, try to get enough sleep. Moderate physical activity, corresponding to the level of training, will successfully resist stress.
Dandruff does not appear without a reason. Most often, its formation is associated with a violation of some physiological processes in the body. Identifying the source of the problem and working on it, as well as appropriate skin and hair care, will solve this problem. But even after dandruff is defeated, you should not let the situation take its course. Timely preventive measures will help to avoid re-meeting with her.